The tomato cell death suppressor Adi3 is restricted to the endosomal system in response to the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrPto.
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The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) AGC protein kinase Adi3 functions as a suppressor of cell death and was first identified as an interactor with the tomato resistance protein Pto and the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrPto. Models predict that loss of Adi3 cell death suppression (CDS) activity during Pto/AvrPto interaction leads to the cell death associated with the resistance response initiated from this interaction. Nuclear localization is required for Adi3 CDS. Prevention of nuclear accumulation eliminates Adi3 CDS and induces cell death by localizing Adi3 to intracellular punctate membrane structures. Here we use several markers of the endomembrane system to show that the punctate membrane structures to which non-nuclear Adi3 is localized are endosomal in nature. Wild-type Adi3 also localizes in these punctate endosomal structures. This was confirmed by the use of endosomal trafficking inhibitors, which were capable of trapping wild-type Adi3 in endosomal-like structures similar to the non-nuclear Adi3. This suggests Adi3 may traffic through the cell using the endomembrane system. Additionally, Adi3 was no longer found in the nucleus but was visualized in these punctate endosomal-like membranes during the cell death induced by the Pto/AvrPto interaction. Therefore we propose that inhibiting nuclear import and constraining Adi3 to the endosomal system in response to AvrPto is a mechanism to initiate the cell death associated with resistance.