Penfluridol Represses Integrin Expression in Breast Cancer through Induction of Reactive Oxygen Species and Downregulation of Sp Transcription Factors. Academic Article uri icon


  • It was recently demonstrated the penfluridol inhibited breast tumor growth and metastasis and this was associated with downregulation of 6- and 4-integrins. In this study, we observed the penfluridol induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and this was the primary mechanism of action. Penfluridol-mediated growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of breast cancer cell migration was attenuated after cotreatment with glutathione. Penfluridol also downregulated Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 through epigenetic downregulation of cMyc and cMyc-regulated miRNAs (miR27a and miR20a/miR17) and induction of the miR-regulated Sp transcriptional repressors ZBTB10 and ZBTB4. 6- and 4-integrins as well as 5- and 1-integrins are Sp-regulated genes that are also coregulated by the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 and these integrins can be targeted by agents such as penfluridol that suppress Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 and also by NR4A1 antagonists. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 205-16. 2016 AACR.

published proceedings

  • Mol Cancer Ther

author list (cited authors)

  • Hedrick, E., Li, X. i., & Safe, S.

citation count

  • 46

complete list of authors

  • Hedrick, Erik||Li, Xi||Safe, Stephen

publication date

  • January 2017