Complete characterization of fourth-order symplectic integrators with extended-linear coefficients.
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The structure of symplectic integrators up to fourth order can be completely and analytically understood when the factorization (split) coefficients are related linearly but with a uniform nonlinear proportional factor. The analytic form of these extended-linear symplectic integrators greatly simplified proofs of their general properties and allowed easy construction of both forward and nonforward fourth-order algorithms with an arbitrary number of operators. Most fourth-order forward integrators can now be derived analytically from this extended-linear formulation without the use of symbolic algebra.
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