Recycling Pd colloidal catalysts using polymeric phosphine ligands and polyethylene as a solvent
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Polyisobutylene (PIB)-bound azo dyes were prepared from aryl amine terminated polyisobutylene oligomers and used to form palladacycle precatalysts that can be used for catalytic carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions. The catalysts so formed were recyclable using thermomorphic heptane-DMF solutions that are monophasic at 80 °C and biphasic at room temperature. Under these conditions, the Pd catalyst can be recycled but some Pd leaches into the product solution. Using a low melting polyethylene oligomer as a solvent in place of the volatile heptane solvent reduces this leaching by roughly an order of magnitude. Further modification that involves using a second polyisobutylene (PIB)-bound phosphine ligand both increases the activity of the colloidal Pd catalyst and decreases the total Pd leaching by almost two orders of magnitude with 99.88% of the Pd being recovered. In this case, the Pd content in the solution of the product was ca. 0.3 ppm. These two modifications together lead to a much more sustainable strategy for the use of Pd colloidal catalysts in catalytic cross coupling chemistry. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
author list (cited authors)
Priyadarshani, N., Suriboot, J., & Bergbreiter, D. E.