Three-dimensional modeling and numerical analysis of rate-dependent irrecoverable deformation in shape memory alloys
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Shape memory alloys (SMAs) provide an attractive solid-state actuation alternative to engineers in various fields due to their ability to exhibit recoverable deformations while under substantial loads. Many constitutive models describing this repeatable phenomenon have been proposed, where some models also capture the effects of rate-independent irrecoverable deformations (i.e., plasticity) in SMAs. In this work, we consider a topic not addressed to date: the generation and evolution of irrecoverable viscoplastic strains in an SMA material. Such strains appear in metals subjected to sufficiently high temperatures. The need to account for these effects in SMAs arises when considering one of two situations: the exposure of a conventional SMA material (e.g., NiTi) to high temperatures for a non-negligible amount of time, as occurs during shape-setting, or the utilization of new high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs), where the elevated transformation temperatures induce transformation and viscoplastic behaviors simultaneously. A new three-dimensional constitutive model based on established SMA and viscoplastic modeling techniques is derived that accounts for these behaviors. The numerical implementation of the model is described in detail. Several finite element analysis (FEA) examples are provided, demonstrating the utility of the new model and its implementation in assessing the effects of viscoplastic behaviors in shape memory alloys. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.