Gifts, Bribes, and Development in Post-Soviet Kazakstan Academic Article uri icon


  • Beginning in the 1990s, development organizations launched a global anticorruption campaign. Throughout the world, including post-Soviet Kazakstan, widespread corruption is generally viewed as a serious threat to economic development and political stability. This article addresses the practical problem of distinguishing gifts from bribes in a society like Kazakstan, where some gifts function in part as bribes. The search for this nonexistent boundary reveals the limitations of categories such as 'gifts,' 'bribes,' and 'commodities.' In addition, by examining local perceptions of morality and corruption, this article provides insights for developing culturally appropriate development programs to fight corruption.

published proceedings

  • Human Organization

author list (cited authors)

  • Werner, C

citation count

  • 62

complete list of authors

  • Werner, Cynthia

publication date

  • March 2000