Kamranzadeh, Vahideh (2011-12). An Energy Analysis Of A Large, Multipurpose Educational Building In A Hot Climate. Master's Thesis.
In this project a steady-state building load for Constant Volume Terminal Reheat (CVTR), Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCV) and Dual Duct Variable Air Volume (DDVAV) systems for the Zachry Engineering Building has been modeled.
First, the thermal resistance values of the building structure have been calculated. After applying some assumptions, building characteristics were determined and building loads were calculated using the diversified loads calculation method. By having the daily data for six months for the Zachry building, the input to the CVTR, DDCV and DDVAV Microsoft Excel code were prepared for starting the simulation.
The air handling units for the Zachry building are Dual Duct Variable Air Volume (DDVAV) systems. The calibration procedure has been used to compare the calibration signatures with characteristic signatures in order to determine which input variables need to be changed to achieve proper calibration. Calibration signatures are the difference between measured energy consumption and simulated energy consumption as a function of temperature. Characteristic signatures are the energy consumption as a function of temperature obtained by changing the value of input variables of the system. The base simulated model of the DDVAV system has been changed according to the characteristic signatures of the building and adjusted to get the closest result to the measured data. The simulation method for calibration could be used for energy audits, improving energy efficiency, and fault detection.
In the base model of DDVAV, without any changes in the input, the chilled water consumption had an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 56.705577 MMBtu/day and an Mean Bias Error (MBE) of 45.763256 MMBtu/day while hot water consumption had an RMSE of 1.9072574 MMBtu/day and an MBE of 45.763256 MMBtu/day. In the calibration process, system parameters such as zone temperature, cooling coil temperature, minimum supply air and minimum outdoor air have been changed. The decisions for varying the parameters were based on the characteristic signatures provided in the project. After applying changes to the system parameters, RMSE and MBE for both hot and cold water consumption were significantly reduced. After changes were applied, chilled water consumption had an RMSE of 12.749868 MMBtu/day and an MBE of 3.423188 MMBtu/day, and hot water consumption had an RMSE of 1.6790 MMBtu/day and an MBE 0.12513 of MMBtu/day.