Leuthold, Elizabeth Tumlinson Brower (2018-08). Resilience and Young Adulthood: Testing the Mediating Effects of Positive Emotion and Social Connectedness on Distress. Doctoral Dissertation. Thesis uri icon

abstract

  • Objective: To examine the potentially mediating effects of positive emotion and social support on the relationship of resilience and gender to distress indicated by poor psychological adjustment and physical health outcomes. Design/Setting: Participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; Harris, 2013) completed in-home interviews as part of Wave IV data collection. These data, collected when the participants were young adults, are part of a larger longitudinal dataset that began with Wave I data collection when the participants were in middle school. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Participants: Participants include the 5,114 respondents comprising the Wave IV Public Use Sample provided by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Carolina Population Center, 2008). The sample was predominately in their mid-twenties, Caucasian, and had completed at least a high school education. The sample was 54% female and 42% male. Main outcome Measures: Items from the NEO-PI-R were used to identify resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes. Items from the CES-D10 were used to assess positive affect and depression. Additional questions from the Wave IV in-home interview regarding health outcomes, and social support including familial relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships were also included. Results: Both significant indirect and direct effects were observed from personality to the psychological distress outcome variable. The resilient prototype had significant indirect effects on psychological distress through its advantageous effects on positive affect and social support. A significant direct effect was observed from gender to both the psychological distress and the physical health outcomes. Conclusions: Resilience appears to impact psychological distress through advantageous associations with social support and positive affect. These anticipated relationships are independent of the significant association of gender to psychological distress. Understanding the interactions between social support and positive affect over time in supporting psychological adjustment and overall well-being across the lifespan is a promising avenue requiring longitudinal research. Individuals endorsing psychological distress (for example, anxiety and depression symptoms) may benefit from interventions that promote social connectedness which may increase the likelihood of receiving social support and experiencing positive emotions.
  • Objective: To examine the potentially mediating effects of positive emotion and social
    support on the relationship of resilience and gender to distress indicated by poor
    psychological adjustment and physical health outcomes. Design/Setting: Participants in
    the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; Harris,
    2013) completed in-home interviews as part of Wave IV data collection. These data,
    collected when the participants were young adults, are part of a larger longitudinal
    dataset that began with Wave I data collection when the participants were in middle
    school. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.
    Participants: Participants include the 5,114 respondents comprising the Wave IV Public
    Use Sample provided by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Carolina
    Population Center, 2008). The sample was predominately in their mid-twenties,
    Caucasian, and had completed at least a high school education. The sample was 54%
    female and 42% male. Main outcome Measures: Items from the NEO-PI-R were used
    to identify resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes. Items
    from the CES-D10 were used to assess positive affect and depression. Additional
    questions from the Wave IV in-home interview regarding health outcomes, and social
    support including familial relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships were
    also included. Results: Both significant indirect and direct effects were observed from
    personality to the psychological distress outcome variable. The resilient prototype had
    significant indirect effects on psychological distress through its advantageous effects on
    positive affect and social support. A significant direct effect was observed from gender
    to both the psychological distress and the physical health outcomes.
    Conclusions: Resilience appears to impact psychological distress through advantageous
    associations with social support and positive affect. These anticipated relationships are
    independent of the significant association of gender to psychological distress.
    Understanding the interactions between social support and positive affect over time in
    supporting psychological adjustment and overall well-being across the lifespan is a
    promising avenue requiring longitudinal research. Individuals endorsing psychological
    distress (for example, anxiety and depression symptoms) may benefit from interventions
    that promote social connectedness which may increase the likelihood of receiving social
    support and experiencing positive emotions.

publication date

  • August 2018