Functions of maize oxidized lipids in abiotic and biotic stress.
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Physiological functions of Oxylipins, Lipoxygenases and Oxo-Phytodienoate Reductases. Growing body of genetic and pharmacological evidence points to the pivotal biological functions of oxylipins as molecular signals regulating plant development and adaptation to ever changing environmental conditions. Oxylipins are a large class of diverse oxygenated polyenoic fatty acids, the majority of which are derivatives of at least seven multienzyme pathways collectively called the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway (Feussner and Wasternack, 2002). It has been recently estimated that plants collectively produce more than 650 individual oxylipin molecular species and this number continuously grow every year with new oxylipins being identified (Borrego and Kolomiets, 2016). While the precise physiological functions of the vast majority of individual oxylipins remain unknown, they are implicated as signals in reproductive development, seed germination, senescence, programmed cell death, tolerance to cold, drought and salt stresses, and resistance to insects and nematodes, fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens. In addition to signaling roles within plants, accumulating evidence suggest that many oxylipin volatiles such as green leaf volatiles (GLV), and jasmonic acid derived cis-jasmone and methyl jasmonate function in plant-to-plant and plant-to-insect pest/pathogen communication (Christensen et al., 2013; Christensen and Kolomiets, 2011). Despite rapid advancement in analytical tools allowing the identification of the ever-growing number of oxylipins, physiological functions of only several oxylipins, namely the phytohormone jasmonic acid and its precursors and derivatives collectively called jasmonates, are relatively well established in dicots, Arabidopsis and tomato.........