Rounds, Elliott Wilson (2009-05). Influence of exogenous effectors of invertase activity on rice physiology and growth. Master's Thesis.
Carbon flow into developing ovaries has been reported to be important in seed retention and seed size. Invertase, which cleaves sucrose into glucose and fructose has been shown to be important in rapidly expanding tissue, such as early root growth or during tiller expansion. The manipulation of invertase activity with over-the-top applications of agrochemicals may prevent the detrimental effects of abiotic stress by altering the source/sink relationship. These experiments examined economically important tissues in rice production during critical developmental stages under abiotic stress. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted under normal growing conditions using local management practices. Plants were treated with exogenous chemicals that affect the activity of invertase during the early-grain fill stage on field grown plants. Other plants were exposed to elevated nighttime temperature of 30?C for 4 d using a free-air, infrared heating device in the greenhouse. Rice was also treated at mid- to late-grain fill stage of the main crop to identify the impact of the exogenous chemicals on developing ratoon tiller buds. The activity of soluble acid invertase (SAI), concentrations of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch were determined in penultimate leaves, panicles, and main-crop stem segments during ratoon tiller bud expansion, using the enzyme-coupled stoichiometric production of NADH measured spectrophotometrically at 340nm. The results suggest SAI, carbohydrates, and agronomic characters are influenced by exogenous chemicals at the applied rates. The thidiazuron treatment caused an unidentified stress event. The stress was confirmed by increased hexose concentration and the proportion of hexose concentration to sucrose concentration. This stress reduced the main-crop grain yield, but not the ratoon yield or total grain yield. An interaction between the ammonium molybdate treatment and high nighttime temperature was seen in the panicle. The ranked difference was reduced by the high nighttime temperature from the ambient nighttime temperature for the SAI activity, TSC content, starch content, and TNC content. The tested chemicals and rates are not appropriate for commercial rice production because the effect of the exogenous chemicals do not appear to consistently aid rice plants to counteract the detrimental effects of abiotic stress.