Xia, Xin (2011-05). Arsenic Trisulfide on Lithium Niobate Devices for Infrared Integrated Optics. Doctoral Dissertation. Thesis uri icon

abstract

  • Arsenic trisulfide (As?S?) waveguide devices on lithium niobate substrates (LiNbO?) provide a set of compact and versatile means for guiding and manipulating optical modes in infrared integrated optical circuits, including the integrated trace gas detection system. As a member of the chalcogenide glass family, As?S? has many properties superior to other materials, such as high transparency up to 10 [mu]m, large refractive index and high nonlinear coefficient. At the wavelength of 4.8[mu]m, low-loss As?S? waveguides are achieved: The propagation loss is 0.33 dB/cm; the coupling efficiency is estimated to be 81 %; and less than 3 dB loss is measured for a 90-degree bent waveguide of 250 [mu]m bending radius. They offer an ideal solution to the optical interconnection -- the fundamental element of an optical circuit. LiNbO? is a birefringent crystal that has long been studied as the substrate material. Titanium diffused waveguides in lithium niobate substrate (Ti: LiNbO?) have excellent electro-optical properties, based on which, on-chip polarization converters are demonstrated. New benefits can be obtained by integrating As?S? and Ti: LiNbO? to form a hybrid waveguide, which benefits from the high index contrast of As?S? and the electro-optical properties of Ti: LiNbO? as well as its easy connection with commercial single mode fibers. For hybrid waveguides, the mode coupling is key. A taper coupler is preferred owing to its simplicity in design and fabrication. Although preliminary experiments have shown the feasibility of such integration, the underlying mechanism is not well understood and guidelines for design are lacking. Therefore, a simulation method is first developed and then applied to the taper coupler design. Devices based on taper couplers are then fabricated and characterized. The study reveals that in the presence of mode beating, it is not necessarily the longer taper that is the better coupling. There exists an optimum length for a taper with fixed width variation. A two-stage taper design can largely reduce the total length, e. g. by 64%, while keeping the coupling efficiency above 90%. According to the frequency domain analysis, these practical taper couplers work for a wavelength range instead of a single wavelength.

publication date

  • May 2011