Developing integrated solutions for sustainable herbicide resistance prevention and management in Texas cropping systems
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Similar to any biological organism, weed communities have the potential to evolve resistance to selection pressure imposed on them (Gressel and Segel 1978; Harper 1956). Herbicides typically exert enormous selection pressures due to high control efficacies. Currently, herbicide-resistant weeds pose an immense threat to crop production efficiency worldwide. As of 2015, there are 449 unique cases of herbicide resistance in 245 weed species across the world (Heap 2015). A common phenomenon shared by these cases is that weed management practitioners relied heavily on few herbicide options without implementing sufficient management diversity (Norsworthy et al. 2012).In Texas, the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds is an emerging problem in several cropping systems, tremendously affecting crop yields, quality and profitability. Currently, glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and common waterhemp are two major weed issues in Texas causing serious economic damages in a number of row-crops, including cotton, sorghum, corn and soybean (Baumann 2013; McGinty et al. 2015). Herbicide-resistant annual ryegrass (resistance to ALS- and ACCase-inhibitors) is a serious threat to wheat production throughout the Blacklands of Texas (Swart 2012; Swart et al. 2012)..........