We present the development and field application of a workflow for multiscale reservoir-model calibration that seamlessly integrates production data into the reservoir description from the facies to the grid-cell scale. To start with, the permeability field is parameterized using a novel grid-connectivity-based transformation basis that can be applied with any model geometry, including unstructured and corner-point grids. The parameterization basis functions emerge from spectral decomposition of the grid-connectivity Laplacian and are related to the structural harmonics of the grid. To reconcile data with model resolution during history matching, we first use the coarsest-scale basis functions to identify the large-scale variability. Additional smaller-scale basis elements are then adaptively incorporated to successively refine the model to a level supported by data resolution. During refinement, the inclusion of more detailed basis functions into the parameterization is determined by generic modal frequency when the prior model is unavailable or by using prior information when available. In the final step of the workflow, a streamline-based inversion is performed to locally adjust the reservoir model at grid-cell resolution along preferential-flow paths defined during the coarser-scale parameterization.
We demonstrate the suitability and effectiveness of the developed workflow through application to an offshore turbidite reservoir with frequent well intervention, including shut-ins and recompletions. The static model has over 300,000 cells, a complex channelized interpretation with faults, four injector/producer pairs with deviated wells, and over eight years of production history, including water cut and pressure data. The grid-connectivity-based parameterization effectively updates the prior regional permeability at scales and in locations warranted by the data, while preserving the geologic continuity and avoiding ad hoc redefinition of regions given the sparse well pattern. The multiscale calibrated-permeability field indicates flow communication previously unrecognized in static geologic interpretation or manual history matching.