- Features of employment structures and occupational environments are considered to increase risk of alcohol dependence amongst both males and females, although the mechanisms whereby this operates are not clearly understood. The present retrospective case-control study examined the way in which factors related to employment and occupation facilitated the development of alcohol dependence following the occurrence of a stressful life event. Results showed that for males, there were certain occupational risk factors that were conducive to the development of alcohol dependence, and that risk was especially high for those working in such occupations who experienced a stressful event. For females, there was some evidence to suggest that full-time employment increased risk of alcohol dependence, at least for married women. It is suggested that, in order to better understand the factors of employment conducive to the development of female alcohol dependence, measures focussed specifically on work environments, such as those used in the present study of males should be developed.