Studying associations between urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cardiovascular diseases in the United States.
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The association between background, enduring environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cardiovascular diseases has not been well studied in the general population. In this study, we used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2004 to investigate the associations between eight monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) and self-report CVD. In a logistic regression model adjusting for cigarette smoking and other covariates, phenanthrene metabolite, 2-hydroxyphennathrene (2-PHEN), was significantly associated with self-report CVD. Compared to subjects within the lowest tertile of 2-PHEN, subjects within the middle and highest tertiles had higher self-report CVD (the 2nd tertile: AOR=1.29, 95%CI: 0.97-1.72; the 3rd tertile: AOR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.01-2.07; p for trend=0.04). In addition, fluorene metabolite (i.e. 2-hydroxyfluorene) also showed a marginally significant linear trend with self-report CVD (p for trend=0.07). Further studies are necessary to explore the associations between these highly prevalent pollutants and CVD.