Ingestion of Lead and Nontoxic Shot by Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) from the Mid-Gulf Coast of Texas, USA Academic Article uri icon


  • Ninety-eight Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and 84 Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) gizzards were examined for ingested shot. One Northern Shoveler had lead and three had steel shot; 24 teal and 17 shovelers had composite nontoxic shot or nonlead metal fragments. Prevalence of ingested lead appears minimal and consistent with other studies conducted after lead-shot bans.

author list (cited authors)

  • Garrison, D. A., Fedynich, A. M., Smith, A. J., Ferro, P. J., Butler, D. A., Peterson, M. J., & Lupiani, B.

citation count

  • 2

publication date

  • July 2011