Development of DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines utilizing heterologous NA and NS1 protein strategies for the control of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza in turkeys
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Since 2003, triple reassortant (TR) swine H3N2 influenza viruses containing gene segments from human, avian, and swine origins have been detected in the U.S. turkey populations. The initial outbreak that occurred involved birds that were vaccinated with the currently available H3 swine- and avian-origin influenza vaccines. Antigenically, all turkey swine-lineage TR H3N2 isolates are closely related to each other but show little or no antigenic cross-reactivity with the avian origin or swine origin influenza vaccine strains that are currently being used in turkey operations. These results call for re-evaluation of currently available influenza vaccines being used in turkey flocks and development of more effective DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines. In this study, we selected one TR H3N2 strain, A/turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) that showed broad cross reactivity with other recent TR turkey H3N2 isolates, and created NA- and NS-based DIVA vaccines using traditional reassortment as well as reverse genetics methods. Protective efficacy of those vaccines was determined in 2-week-old and 80-week-old breeder turkeys. The reassortant DIVA vaccines significantly reduced the presence of challenge virus in the oviduct of breeder turkeys as well as trachea and cloaca shedding of both young and old breeder turkeys, suggesting that proper vaccination could effectively prevent egg production drop and potential viral contamination of eggs in infected turkeys. Our results demonstrate that the heterologous NA and NS1 DIVA vaccines together with their corresponding serological tests could be useful for the control of TR H3N2 influenza in turkeys.
author list (cited authors)
Wang, L., Qin, Z., Pantin-Jackwood, M., Faulkner, O., Suarez, D. L., Garcia, M., ... Lee, C.