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Subclinical inflammation is frequently associated with obesity. Here, we aim to better define the acute inflammatory response during fasting. To do so, we analyzed representatives of immune-related proteins in circulation and in tissues as potential markers for adipose tissue inflammation and modulation of the immune system. Lipopolysaccharide treatment or high-fat diet led to an increase in circulating serum amyloid (SAA) and 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), whereas adipsin levels were reduced. Mouse models that are protected against diet-induced challenges, such as adiponectin-overexpressing animals or mice treated with PPAR agonists, displayed lower SAA levels and higher adip-sin levels. An oral lipid gavage, as well as prolonged fasting, increased circulating SAA concurrent with the elevation of free FA levels. Moreover, prolonged fasting was associated with an increased number of Mac2-positive crown-like structures, an increased capillary permeability, and an increase in several M2-type macrophage markers in adipose tissue. This fasting-induced increase in SAA and M2-type macrophage markers was impaired in metabolically challenged animals. These data suggest that metabolic inflexibility is associated with a lack of "immunological fitness."
author list (cited authors)
Asterholm, I. W., McDonald, J., Blanchard, P., Sinha, M., Xiao, Q., Mistry, J., ... Scherer, P. E.