Cloning and biochemical analysis of the tetrahymena origin binding protein TIF1: competitive DNA binding in vitro and in vivo to critical rDNA replication determinants.
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Cis-acting type I elements regulate the initiation of DNA replication, replication fork movement, and transcription of the Tetrahymena thermophila rDNA minichromosome and are required for cell cycle-controlled replication and developmentally programmed gene amplification. Previous studies identified three in vitro single-stranded type I element binding activities that were proposed to play distinct roles in replication control. Here we describe the cloning of one of these genes, TIF1, and we provide evidence for its association with type I elements in vivo. Furthermore, we show that TIF1 interacts (in vitro and in vivo) with pause site elements (PSE), which co-localize with replication initiation and fork arrest sites, and are shown to be essential. The in vivo accessibility of PSE and type I elements to potassium permanganate suggests that origin regions are frequently unwound in native chromatin. TIF1 contains sequence similarity to the Solanum tuberosum single strand-specific transcription factor, p24, and a related Arabidopsis protein. Antisense inhibition studies suggest that TIF1 competes with other proteins for PSE and type I element binding. TIF1 displays a marked strand bias in vivo, discriminating between origin- and promoter-proximal type I elements. We propose that this bias selectively modulates the binding of a different subset of proteins to the respective regulatory elements.
author list (cited authors)
Saha, S., Nicholson, A., & Kapler, G. M
complete list of authors
Saha, S||Nicholson, A||Kapler, GM