Prior research in the field of boundary layer turbulence has identified streamwise-elongated large-scale turbulence structures in both low speed compressible and high speed (M=2.0) flow. No experimental work has been done in any flow of M> or =3 in an attempt to identify the presence or quantify the behavior of these structures, nor has any study of favorable pressure gradient or surface roughness element effects on these structures been conducted. This research used high-resolution Particle Imaging Velocimetry in a M = 4.9 blow-down wind tunnel accompanied by a series of data analysis in order to identify the existence of streamwise-elongated large-scale turbulence structures in a hypersonic boundary layer. Furthermore, this study identified physical and statistical behavior which suggests that increasing favorable pressure gradient had a substantial impact on both the structural coherence and relative intensity of these turbulent structures at all boundary layer heights tested. This experiment also identified similar effects on these structures in the lower half of the boundary layer as a result of the introduction of surface roughness elements. Finally, several trends were identified between the averaged turbulence statistics and the behavior of the large-scale streamwise-elongated turbulence structures present in this study.