Evaluation of PD 404,182 as an anti-HIV and anti-herpes simplex virus microbicide. Academic Article uri icon


  • PD 404,182 (PD) is a synthetic compound that was found to compromise HIV integrity via interaction with a nonenvelope protein viral structural component (A. M. Chamoun et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:672-681, 2012). The present study evaluates the potential of PD as an anti-HIV microbicide and establishes PD's virucidal activity toward another pathogen, herpes simplex virus (HSV). We show that the anti-HIV-1 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PD, when diluted in seminal plasma, is 1 M, similar to the IC50 determined in cell culture growth medium, and that PD retains full anti-HIV-1 activity after incubation in cervical fluid at 37C for at least 24 h. In addition, PD is nontoxic toward vaginal commensal Lactobacillus species (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], >300 M), freshly activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CC50, 200 M), and primary CD4(+) T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (CC50, >300 M). PD also exhibited high stability in pH-adjusted Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline with little to no activity loss after 8 weeks at pH 4 and 42C, indicating suitability for formulation for transportation and storage in developing countries. Finally, for the first time, we show that PD inactivates herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 at submicromolar concentrations. Due to the prevalence of HSV infection, the ability of PD to inactivate HSV may provide an additional incentive for use as a microbicide. The ability of PD to inactivate both HIV-1 and HSV, combined with its low toxicity and high stability, warrants additional studies for the evaluation of PD's microbicidal candidacy in animals and humans.

published proceedings

  • Antimicrob Agents Chemother

altmetric score

  • 3.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Chamoun-Emanuelli, A. M., Bobardt, M., Moncla, B., Mankowski, M. K., Ptak, R. G., Gallay, P., & Chen, Z.

citation count

  • 12

complete list of authors

  • Chamoun-Emanuelli, Ana M||Bobardt, Michael||Moncla, Bernard||Mankowski, Marie K||Ptak, Roger G||Gallay, Philippe||Chen, Zhilei

publication date

  • February 2014