Protein kinase C inhibition by sphingoid long-chain bases: effects on secretion in human neutrophils.
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Sphingoid long-chain bases (sphinganine and sphingosine) have recently been shown to inhibit protein kinase C both in vitro [Y. Hannun et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12604-12609] and in intact human neutrophils, in which they block activation of the superoxide-generating respiratory burst [E. Wilson et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12616-12623]. In the present study we have used sphingosine to investigate the pathways for agonist-induced secretion of neutrophil granule contents. Induction of secretion of the specific granule component lactoferrin by a variety of agonists [phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and calcium ionophore A23187] was completely inhibited by sphingosine with an ED50 of 6 to 10 microM. PMA-induced secretion of lysozyme (present in both the azurophilic and specific granules) was completely blocked with an ED50 of 10 microM, whereas fMLP-induced secretion was only about 50% inhibited. Secretion of the azurophilic granule proteins beta-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase was activated by fMLP and A23187, but not by PMA, and was not affected by sphingosine. The use of A23187 in the presence of sphingosine allowed differentiation between calcium activation of protein kinase C-dependent versus-independent pathways. The effect of sphingosine was not mediated by neutralizing intracellular acidic compartments, since treatment of neutrophils with inhibitory concentrations of sphingosine did not significantly alter the uptake of labeled methylamine. We conclude that at least two mechanisms participate in the regulation of specific and azurophilic granule secretion, respectively: a protein kinase C-dependent pathway and a calcium-dependent pathway which does not involve protein kinase C.
author list (cited authors)
Wilson, E., Rice, W. G., Kinkade, J. M., Merrill, A. H., Arnold, R. R., & Lambeth, J. D
complete list of authors
Wilson, E||Rice, WG||Kinkade, JM||Merrill, AH||Arnold, RR||Lambeth, JD