Isolation of an amino-terminal region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein that retains origin binding and E2 interaction capacity.
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In vitro DNA binding results from a series of E1 proteins containing amino-terminal or carboxy-terminal truncations indicated that sequences between amino acids 121 and 284 were critical for origin binding. Additional binding experiments with E1 proteins containing internal, in-frame insertions or deletions confirmed the importance of the region defined by truncated E1 proteins and also demonstrated that downstream sequences were not required for binding activity in the context of the full-length E1 protein. On the basis of mapping results from the E1 mutants, a clone (pE1(121-311)) was constructed that expressed E1 amino acids within the approximate boundaries of the critical sequences for DNA binding. The E1(121-311) protein retained origin-specific DNA binding, confirming that this region was not only necessary but was also sufficient for origin recognition. In addition to origin binding, E1(121-311) bound E2 protein in a cold-sensitive manner. Therefore, DNA binding and E2 binding activities colocalize to a 191-amino-acid functional domain derived from the amino-terminal half of the E1 protein. Finally, three E1 proteins with mutations in this region all lacked DNA binding activity and were all defective for in vivo replication. Two of these E1 mutants retained E2 binding capability, demonstrating that origin recognition by E1 is critical for replication and cannot necessarily be rescued by an interaction with E2 protein.