Papillomavirus E1 proteins: form, function, and features.
Additional Document Info
The E1 proteins are the essential origin recognition proteins for papillomavirus (PV) replication. E1 proteins bind to specific DNA elements in the viral origin of replication and assemble into hexameric helicases with the aid of a second viral protein, E2. The resultant helicase complex initiates origin DNA unwinding to provide the template for subsequent syntheses of progeny DNA. In addition to ATP-dependent helicase activity, E1 proteins interact with and recruit several host cell replication proteins to viral origin, including DNA polymerase alpha and RPA. This review will compare the basic structures and features of the human (HPV) and bovine (BPV1) papillomaviruses with an emphasis on mechanisms of replication function.