Mutational analysis of the 18-base-pair inverted repeat element at the bovine papillomavirus origin of replication: identification of critical sequences for E1 binding and in vivo replication.
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Replication of bovine papillomavirus requires two viral proteins, E1 and E2-TA. Previously we demonstrated that sequences within an imperfect 18-bp inverted repeat (IR) element were sufficient to confer specific binding of the E1 protein to the origin region (S. E. Holt, G. Schuller, and V. G. Wilson, J. Virol. 68:1094-1102, 1994). To identify critical nucleotides for E1 binding and origin function, a series of individual point mutations was constructed at each nucleotide position in the 18-bp IR. Binding of E1 to these point mutations established that both the position of the mutation and the specific nucleotide change were important for the E1-DNA interaction. Equivalent mutations from each half of the IR exhibited similar binding, suggesting that the halves were functionally symmetric for E1 interactions. Each of these mutations was evaluated also for origin function in vivo by a transient-replication assay. No single point mutation eliminated replication capacity completely, though many mutants were severely impaired, demonstrating an important functional contribution for the E1 binding site. Furthermore, E1 binding was not sufficient for replication, as several origin mutants bound E1 well in vitro but replicated poorly in vivo. This suggests that certain nucleotides within the 18-bp IR may be involved in postbinding events necessary for replication initiation. The results with the point mutations suggest that E1-E1 interactions are important for stable complex formation and also indicate that there is some flexibility with regard to formation of a functional E1 replication complex at the origin.
author list (cited authors)
Holt, S. E., & Wilson, V. G.