Simon, Anish Abraham (2004-12). Shape memory response and microstructural evolution of a severe plastically deformed high temperature shape memory alloy (NiTiHf). Master's Thesis.
NiTiHf alloys have attracted considerable attention as potential high temperature Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) but the instability in transformation temperatures and significant irrecoverable strain during thermal cycling under constant stress remains a major concern. The main reason for irrecoverable strain and change in transformation temperatures as a function of thermal cycling can be attributed to dislocation formation due to relatively large volume change during transformation from austenite to martensite. The formation of dislocations decreases the elastic stored energy, and during back transformation a reduced amount of strain is recovered. All these observations can be attributed to relatively soft lattice that cannot accommodate volume change by other means. We have used Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE), hot rolling and marforming to strengthen the 49.8Ni-42.2Ti-8Hf (in at. %) material and to introduce desired texture to overcome these problems in NiTiHf alloys. ECAE offers the advantage of preserving billet cross-section and the application of various routes, which give us the possibility to introduce various texture components and grain morphologies. ECAE was performed using a die of 90?? tool angle and was performed at high temperatures from 500??C up to 650??C. All extrusions went well at these temperatures. Minor surface cracks were observed only in the material extruded at 500 ??C, possibly due to the non-isothermal nature of the extrusion. It is believed that these surface cracks can be eliminated during isothermal extrusion at this temperature. This result of improved formability of NiTiHf alloy using ECAE is significant because an earlier review of the formability of NiTiHf using 50% rolling reduction concluded that the minimum temperature for rolling NiTi12%Hf alloy without cracks is 700??C. The strain level imposed during one 90?? ECAE pass is equivalent to 69% rolling reduction. Subsequent to ECAE processing, a reduction in irrecoverable strain from 0.6% to 0.21% and an increase in transformation strain from 1.25% to 2.18% were observed at a load of 100 MPa as compared to the homogenized material. The present results show that the ECAE process permits the strengthening of the material by work hardening, grain size reduction, homogeneous distribution of fine precipitates, and the introduction of texture in the material. These four factors contribute in the increase of stability of the material. In this thesis I will be discussing the improvement of mechanical behavior and stability of the material achieved after various passes of ECAE.