Determination of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance to macrolide antimicrobials or rifampin in Rhodococcus equi isolates and treatment outcome in foals infected with antimicrobial-resistant isolates of R equi.
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance to macrolide antimicrobials or rifampin in Rhodococcus equi isolates and to describe treatment outcome in foals infected with antimicrobial-resistant isolates of R equi. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE POPULATION: 38 isolates classified as resistant to macrolide antimicrobials or rifampin received from 9 veterinary diagnostic laboratories between January 1997 and December 2008. PROCEDURES: For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration of macrolide antimicrobials (ie, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin) and rifampin was determined by use of a concentration-gradient test. Prevalence of R equi isolates from Florida and Texas resistant to macrolide antimicrobials or rifampin was determined. Outcome of antimicrobial treatment in foals infected with antimicrobial-resistant isolates of R equi was determined. RESULTS: Only 24 of 38 (63.2%) isolates were resistant to >or= 1 antimicrobial. Two isolates were resistant only to rifampin, whereas 22 isolates were resistant to azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and rifampin. The overall prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant isolates in submissions received from Florida and Texas was 3.7% (12/328). The survival proportion of foals infected with resistant R equi isolates (2/8 [25.0%]) was significantly less, compared with the survival proportion in foals that received the same antimicrobial treatment from which antimicrobial-susceptible isolates were cultured (55/79 [69.6%]). Odds of nonsurvival for foals infected with resistant R equi isolates were 6.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 37) times the odds for foals infected with susceptible isolates. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Interpretation of the results emphasized the importance of microbiological culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in foals with pneumonia caused by R equi.
author list (cited authors)
Giguère, S., Lee, E., Williams, E., Cohen, N. D., Chaffin, M. K., Halbert, N., ... Slovis, N. M.