A Data-Driven Methodology to Comprehensively Assess Bone Drilling Using Radar Plots. Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: The study aims to develop a data-driven methodology to assess bone drilling in preparation for future clinical trials in residency training. The existing assessment methods are either subjective or do not consider the interdependence among individual skill factors, such as time and accuracy. This study uses quantitative data and radar plots to visualize the balance of the selected skill factors. METHODS: In the experiment, straight vertical drilling was assessed across 3 skill levels: expert surgeons (N = 10), intermediate residents (postgraduate year-2-5, N = 5), and novice residents (postgraduate year-1, N = 10). Motion and force were measured for each drilling trial, and data from multiple trials were then converted into 5 performance indicators, including overshoot, drilling time, overshoot consistency, time consistency, and force fluctuation. Each indicator was then scored between 0 and 10, with 10 being the best, and plotted into a radar plot. RESULTS: Statistical difference (p < 0.05) was confirmed among 3 skill levels in force, time, and overshoot data. The radar plots revealed that the novice group exhibited the most distorted pentagons compared with the well-formed pentagons observed in the case of expert participants. The intermediate group showed slight distortion that was between the expert and novice groups. CONCLUSION/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This research shows the utility of radar plots in drilling assessment in a comprehensive manner and lays the groundwork for a data-driven training scheme to prepare novice residents for clinical practice.

published proceedings

  • JB JS Open Access

author list (cited authors)

  • Nigam, A., Kellam, J. F., Ambrose, C. G., & Tai, B. L.

complete list of authors

  • Nigam, Aman||Kellam, James F||Ambrose, Catherine G||Tai, Bruce L

publication date

  • January 2024