Estimation of the probability for exceeding a threshold concentration of furosemide at various intervals after intravenous administration in horses. Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the probability for exceeding a threshold concentration of furosemide commonly used for regulatory purposes after IV administration of furosemide in horses. ANIMALS: 12 mature healthy horses (6 Thoroughbreds and 6 Quarter Horses). PROCEDURE: Venous blood was collected from each horse prior to and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, and 6 hours after administration of 250 or 500 mg of furosemide. Concentrations of furosemide were determined, using an ELISA. Concentration of furosemide was modeled as a function of time, accounting for inter- and intrahorse variabilities. On the basis of pharmacokinetic data, the probability for exceeding a concentration of 100 ng/ml as a function of time was determined, using a semiparametric smooth functional averaging method. A bootstrap approach was used to assess inherent variation in this estimated probability. RESULTS: The estimated probability of exceeding the threshold of 100 ng of furosemide/ml ranged from 11.6% at 4 hours to 2.2% at 5.5 hours after IV administration of 250 mg of furosemide/horse and 34.2% at 4 hours to 12.3% at 5.5 hours after IV administration of 500 mg of furosemide/horse. The probability of a horse being falsely identified in violation of regulatory concentrations was inversely associated with time and positively associated with dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Interhorse variability with respect to pharmacokinetics of furosemide will result in misclassification of some horses as being in violation of regulatory concentrations.

author list (cited authors)

  • Cohen, N. D., Chu, K. K., Stanley, S. D., & Wang, N.

citation count

  • 2

publication date

  • March 2001