Effects of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis on the cumulative incidence of pneumonia and cytokine secretion in foals on a farm with endemic infections caused by Rhodococcus equi
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The objectives of the present study were to determine if administration of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (IPPVO) can decrease the cumulative incidence of pneumonia and increase the number of IFN-γ- and IL-4-secreting cells among foals. Fifty-nine foals were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (IPPVO or placebo) prior to birth. At 24-48 h of age, foals received 2 ml of either IPPVO or a placebo by intramuscular injection. Injections were repeated 24h and 8 days later. The number of IFN-γ- and IL-4-secreting cells was measured using a validated ELISPOT assay on blood mononuclear cells collected when the foals were 1-14 days old. Foals were monitored daily for clinical signs of pneumonia and biweekly for lung lesions by ultrasonography. The proportion of foals that developed clinical or ultrasonographic evidence of pneumonia was not significantly different between IPPVO (16 of 28) and placebo (14 of 31). IFN-γ- and IL-4-secreting cells were detected in only 22 and 15 foals, respectively. There was a significant effect of treatment with IPPVO on the number of IFN-γ secreting cells in foals 7- to 14-days-old but not in younger foals. There was no significant effect of treatment with IPPVO on the number of IL-4-secreting cells. The odds of detecting IFN-γ (5.1; 95% CI: 1.5-15) and IL-4 (3.5; 95% CI: 1.1-12) were significantly higher in foals 7-14 days than in younger foals regardless of treatment group. There was no significant association between IFN-γ or IL-4 secretion early in life and subsequent development of pneumonia.
author list (cited authors)
Sturgill, T. L., Giguère, S., Franklin, R. P., Cohen, N. D., Hagen, J., & Kalyuzhny, A. E.