An Integrated mHealth App for Smoking Cessation in Black Smokers With Anxiety: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial (Preprint) Institutional Repository Document uri icon



    Black smokers have greater difficulty in quitting and higher rates of smoking-related diseases and disabilities than the general population. The smoking disparities experienced by this group are, in part, a consequence of multiple chronic life stressors (eg, racial discrimination) that engender increased exposure to interoceptive stress symptoms (eg, anxiety), which can ultimately lead to smoking as a means of immediate emotion regulation.


    This study aimed to culturally adapt and initially test a novel mobile intervention (ie, Mobile Anxiety Sensitivity Program for Smoking [MASP]) that targets anxiety sensitivity (AS; a proxy for difficulty and responsivity to interoceptive stress) among Black smokers. The MASP intervention is culturally informed to address interoceptive stress management difficulties among Black smokers and is thus hypothesized to facilitate smoking cessation.


    In phase 1, a total of 25 Black smokers with elevated AS will be administered MASP for 6 weeks. Following the completion of phase 1, we will further refine the MASP based on qualitative and quantitative data from participants to produce the final MASP iteration. In phase 2, a total of 200 Black smokers with elevated AS will be enrolled and randomly assigned to receive nicotine replacement therapy and either the smartphone-based National Cancer Institute QuitGuide app for standard mobile smoking cessation treatment or the MASP intervention. All participants in phases 1 and 2 will be enrolled remotely and will complete a web-based study screener; smartphone-based baseline assessment; daily smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments for 6 weeks; phone-based end-of-treatment qualitative interviews; and smartphone-based follow-up assessments at postbaseline weeks 1, 2 (quit date), 3, 4, 5, 6, 28, and 54 (weeks 28 and 54 follow-ups will be completed by phase 2 participants only). The MASP intervention is intended to offset barriers to treatment and encourage treatment engagement via smartphones.


    This project was funded in September 2020. Phase 1 data collection began in January 2022. Phase 2 data collection is scheduled to begin in July 2022.


    If successful, data from this study will support culturally informed treatment approaches for Black smokers and, pending findings of efficacy, provide an evidence-based mobile intervention for smoking cessation that is ready for dissemination and implementation.




author list (cited authors)

  • Businelle, M. S., Garey, L., Gallagher, M. W., Hbert, E. T., Vujanovic, A., Alexander, A., ... Zvolensky, M. J.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Businelle, Michael S||Garey, Lorra||Gallagher, Matthew W||H├ębert, Emily T||Vujanovic, Anka||Alexander, Adam||Kezbers, Krista||Matoska, Cameron||Robison, Jillian||Montgomery, Audrey||Zvolensky, Michael J

Book Title

  • JMIR Preprints

publication date

  • April 2022