Estrogen regulation of cyclin D1 gene expression in ZR-75 breast cancer cells involves multiple enhancer elements.
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Cyclin D1 gene expression is induced by 17beta-estradiol (E2) in human breast cancer cells and is important for progression of cells through the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. The mechanism of activation of cyclin D1 is mitogen- and cell context-dependent, and this study describes the role of multiple promoter elements required for induction of cyclin D1 by E2 in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive ZR-75 breast cancer cells. Transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 by E2 was dependent, in part, on a proximal cAMP-response element at -66, and this was linked to induction of protein kinase A-dependent pathways. These results contrasted to a recent report showing that induction of cyclin D1 by E2 in ER-positive MCF-7 and HeLa cells was due to up-regulation of c-jun and subsequent interaction of c-Jun-ATF-2 with the CRE. Moreover, further examination of the proximal region of the cyclin D1 promoter showed that three GC-rich Sp1-binding sites at -143 to -110 were also E2-responsive, and interaction of ERalpha and Sp1 proteins at these sites was confirmed by electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Thus, induction of cyclin D1 by E2 in ZR-75 cells is regulated through nuclear ERalpha/Sp1 and epigenetic protein kinase A activation pathways, and our results suggest that this mechanism may be cell context-dependent even among ER-positive breast cancer cell lines.
author list (cited authors)
Castro-Rivera, E., Samudio, I., & Safe, S.
complete list of authors
Castro-Rivera, E||Samudio, I||Safe, S