Enhancement of docetaxel anticancer activity by a novel diindolylmethane compound in human non-small cell lung cancer. Academic Article uri icon


  • PURPOSE: This study was conducted to examine the cytotoxic effects of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist, 1,1-bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl) methane (DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5)), alone and in combination with docetaxel in vitro in A549 lung cancer cells and in vivo in nude mice bearing A549 orthotopic lung tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Isobolographic method was used to calculate combination index values from cell viability data. Apoptosis was evaluated in A549 cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay and measurement of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase level. Expression of proteins was studied by Western blotting. A549 cells were implanted to induce orthotopic lung tumors in nude mice and the efficacy of docetaxel, DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5), or combination was determined. Apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 expression in the harvested tissues were studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: The combination index values (0.36-0.9) suggested synergistic to additive effects of docetaxel + DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) and resulted in the highest increase in percentage of apoptotic cells and expression of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax, and N-cadherin compared with treatment with either agent. The combination also enhanced procaspase-3 and -9 cleavage. In vivo, docetaxel + DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) reduced lung weights by 57% compared with 39% by docetaxel or 22% by DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) alone, induced apoptosis in 43% of the tumor cells compared with 29% and 22% in tumors treated with docetaxel and DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5), respectively, and increased procaspase-3 cleavage compared with either agent alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest potential benefit for use of docetaxel and DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) combination in lung cancer treatment.

published proceedings

  • Clin Cancer Res

author list (cited authors)

  • Ichite, N., Chougule, M. B., Jackson, T., Fulzele, S. V., Safe, S., & Singh, M.

citation count

  • 86

complete list of authors

  • Ichite, Nkechi||Chougule, Mahavir B||Jackson, Tanise||Fulzele, Suniket V||Safe, Stephen||Singh, Mandip

publication date

  • January 2009