Cooperative Coactivation of Estrogen Receptor α in ZR-75 Human Breast Cancer Cells by SNURF and TATA-binding Protein*
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SNURF is a small RING finger protein that binds the zinc finger region of steroid hormone receptors and enhances Sp1- and androgen receptor-mediated transcription in COS and CV-1 cells. In this study, we show that SNURF coactivates both wild-type estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) (4-fold)- and HE19 (ERalpha deletion of activation function 1 (AF1)) (210-fold)-mediated activation of an estrogen-responsive element promoter in ZR-75 cells. In mammalian two-hybrid assays in ZR-75 cells SNURF interactions were estrogen (E2)-dependent and were not observed with the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. ERalpha interacted with multiple regions of SNURF; SNURF interactions with ERalpha were dependent on AF2, and D538N, E542Q, and D545N mutations in helix 12 abrogated both SNURF-ERalpha binding and coactivation. Moreover, peptide fusion proteins that inhibit interactions between helix 12 of ERalpha with LXXLL box-containing proteins also blocked ERalpha coactivation by SNURF. However, cotransfection of SNURF with prototypical steroid receptor coactivators 1, 2, and 3 that contain LXXLL box motifs did not enhance E2 responsiveness, whereas TATA-binding protein (TBP) and SNURF cooperatively coactivated ERalpha-mediated transactivation. The results are consistent with a unique model for cooperative coactivation of ERalpha that requires ligand binding, repositioning of helix 12, recruitment of TBP, and interaction with SNURF, which binds both ERalpha and TBP.
author list (cited authors)
Saville, B., Poukka, H., Wormke, M., Jänne, O. A., Palvimo, J. J., Stoner, M., Samudio, I., & Safe, S.
complete list of authors
Saville, Bradley||Poukka, Hetti||Wormke, Mark||Janne, Olli A||Palvimo, Jorma J||Stoner, Matthew||Samudio, Ismael||Safe, Stephen