Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease. Academic Article uri icon


  • Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional growth factor that has profound regulatory effects on many developmental and physiological processes. Disruption of the TGF-beta 1 gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells enables mice to be generated that carry the disrupted allele. Animals homozygous for the mutated TGF-beta 1 allele show no gross developmental abnormalities, but about 20 days after birth they succumb to a wasting syndrome accompanied by a multifocal, mixed inflammatory cell response and tissue necrosis, leading to organ failure and death. TGF-beta 1-deficient mice may be valuable models for human immune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft versus host reactions.

published proceedings

  • Nature

altmetric score

  • 15

author list (cited authors)

  • Shull, M. M., Ormsby, I., Kier, A. B., Pawlowski, S., Diebold, R. J., Yin, M., ... Calvin, D.

citation count

  • 2564

complete list of authors

  • Shull, MM||Ormsby, I||Kier, AB||Pawlowski, S||Diebold, RJ||Yin, M||Allen, R||Sidman, C||Proetzel, G||Calvin, D

publication date

  • January 1992

published in