Foliage-feeding fall armyworm (FAW; Spodoptera frugiperda) and root-feeding western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are maize (Zea mays L.) pests that cause significant yield losses. Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a pivotal defense role against insects. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) is converted into JA by peroxisome-localized OPDA reductases (OPR). However, little is known about the physiological functions of cytoplasmic OPRs. Here, we show that disruption of ZmOPR2 reduced wound-induced JA production and defense against FAW while accumulating more JA catabolites. Overexpression of ZmOPR2 in Arabidopsis enhanced JA production and defense against beet armyworm (BAW; Spodoptera exigua). In addition, lox10opr2 double mutants were more susceptible than either single mutant, suggesting that ZmOPR2 and ZmLOX10 uniquely and additively contributed to defense. In contrast to the defensive roles of ZmOPR2 and ZmLOX10 in leaves, single mutants did not display any alteration in root herbivory defense against WCR. Feeding on lox10opr2 double mutants resulted in increased WCR mortality associated with greater herbivory-induced production of insecticidal death acids and ketols. Thus, ZmOPR2 and ZmLOX10 cooperatively inhibit the synthesis of these metabolites during herbivory by WCR. We conclude that ZmOPR2 and ZmLOX10 regulate JA-mediated resistance in leaves against FAW while suppressing insecticidal oxylipin synthesis in roots during WCR infestation.