Effect of miR-142-3p on the M2 Macrophage and Therapeutic Efficacy Against Murine Glioblastoma
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BACKGROUND: The immune therapeutic potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the context of tumor-mediated immune suppression has not been previously described for monocyte-derived glioma-associated macrophages, which are the largest infiltrating immune cell population in glioblastomas and facilitate gliomagenesis. METHODS: An miRNA microarray was used to compare expression profiles between human glioblastoma-infiltrating macrophages and matched peripheral monocytes. The effects of miR-142-3p on phenotype and function of proinflammatory M1 and immunosuppressive M2 macrophages were determined. The therapeutic effect of miR-142-3p was ascertained in immune-competent C57BL/6J mice harboring intracerebral GL261 gliomas and in genetically engineered Ntv-a mice bearing high-grade gliomas. Student t test was used to evaluate the differences between ex vivo datasets. Survival was analyzed with the log-rank test and tumor sizes with linear mixed models and F test. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: miR-142-3p was the most downregulated miRNA (approximately 4.95-fold) in glioblastoma-infiltrating macrophages. M2 macrophages had lower miR-142-3p expression relative to M1 macrophages (P = .03). Overexpression of miR-142-3p in M2 macrophages induced selective modulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor 1, which led to subsequent preferential apoptosis in the M2 subset (P = .01). In vivo miR-142-3p administration resulted in glioma growth inhibition (P = .03, n = 5) and extended median survival (miR-142-3p-treated C57BL/6J mice vs scramble control: 31 days vs 23.5 days, P = .03, n = 10; miR-142-3p treated Ntv-a mice vs scramble control: 32 days vs 24 days, P = .03, n = 9), with an associated decrease in infiltrating macrophages (R (2) = .303). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a unique role of miR-142-3p in glioma immunity by modulating M2 macrophages through the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway.
author list (cited authors)
Xu, S., Wei, J., Wang, F., Kong, L., Ling, X., Nduom, E., ... Heimberger, A. B.