Improving Self-Efficacy With Automatically Generated Interactive Concept Maps: DIME Maps Academic Article uri icon


  • The Dynamic and Interactive Mathematical Expressions (DIME) Map system automatically generates DIME maps, which are personalizable and manipulable concept maps that allow students to interact with the mathematical concepts contained in any portable document format (PDF) textbook or document. A teacher can automatically upload a PDF textbook chapter and retrieve a DIME map of the contained mathematically based concepts. The DIME map is interactive and manipulable and can be used to interactively navigate the PDF textbook chapter. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between use of DIME maps and student learning outcomes, including self-efficacy and ability to understand and recall connections between physics concepts. We implemented a pretest/posttest to determine if student self-efficacy and connections in knowledge increased after participation in a summer camp physics class. We additionally conducted student interviews to better understand how changes in these two factors may have occurred. We then used multivariate analysis of variance and thematic analysis, finding and investigating positive effects of students using DIME maps, namely growth in self-efficacy and connections in knowledge. Based on our findings, we conclude that DIME maps can be valuable learning tools for students that have positive effects on both cognitive and affective learning outcomes.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Rugh, M., Capraro, M. M., & Capraro, R. M.

complete list of authors

  • Rugh, Michael Sze-hon||Capraro, Mary Margaret||Capraro, Robert Michael

publication date

  • 2023