Rotavirus NSP4 interacts with both the amino- and carboxyl-termini of caveolin-1.
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Rotavirus NSP4 plays multiple roles in viral pathogenesis, morphogenesis and replication. We previously reported a direct interaction between full-length NSP4 and the enterotoxic peptide composed of NSP4 residues 114-135 with full-length caveolin-1, the structural protein of caveolae. Caveolin-1 forms a hairpin loop in the cytoplasmic leaflet of plasma membrane caveolae. This unique orientation results in both termini of caveolin-1 exposed to the cytoplasm. The goal of this study was to map the caveolin-1 residues that interact with NSP4 to obtain a more complete picture of this binding event. Utilizing reverse yeast two-hybrid analyses and direct peptide binding assays, the NSP4 binding site was localized to caveolin-1 residues 2-22 and 161-178, at the amino- and carboxyl-termini, respectively. However, NSP4 binding to one of the termini was sufficient for the interaction.