Medical artificial intelligence ethics: A systematic review of empirical studies. Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are transforming medicine and healthcare. Scholars and practitioners have debated the philosophical, ethical, legal, and regulatory implications of medical AI, and empirical research on stakeholders' knowledge, attitude, and practices has started to emerge. This study is a systematic review of published empirical studies of medical AI ethics with the goal of mapping the main approaches, findings, and limitations of scholarship to inform future practice considerations. METHODS: We searched seven databases for published peer-reviewed empirical studies on medical AI ethics and evaluated them in terms of types of technologies studied, geographic locations, stakeholders involved, research methods used, ethical principles studied, and major findings. FINDINGS: Thirty-six studies were included (published 2013-2022). They typically belonged to one of the three topics: exploratory studies of stakeholder knowledge and attitude toward medical AI, theory-building studies testing hypotheses regarding factors contributing to stakeholders' acceptance of medical AI, and studies identifying and correcting bias in medical AI. INTERPRETATION: There is a disconnect between high-level ethical principles and guidelines developed by ethicists and empirical research on the topic and a need to embed ethicists in tandem with AI developers, clinicians, patients, and scholars of innovation and technology adoption in studying medical AI ethics.

published proceedings

  • Digit Health

author list (cited authors)

  • Tang, L. u., Li, J., & Fantus, S.

complete list of authors

  • Tang, Lu||Li, Jinxu||Fantus, Sophia

publication date

  • January 2023