First report of Nerine yellow stripe virus infecting crinium lily (Crinium sp.) in Texas. Academic Article uri icon


  • Crinum sp. (family Amaryllidaceae) is an ornamental flower bulb that is commonly called crinum lily, cape lily, cemetery plant, spider lily, and swamp lily. In April 2023, two plants of Crinum sp. var. Maiden's Blush with yellow stripe symptoms (Fig. S1) were submitted to the Texas Plant Virus Diagnostic Laboratory, Weslaco, TX for virus diagnosis. Due to the resemblance of the observed symptoms to those described for potyviruses infecting ornamental flower bulbs (Pearson et al. 2009), total RNA extracts were made from each sample using the SpectrumTM Plant Total RNA Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, USA), according to the manufacturer's protocol. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized from 2 g total RNA per sample with Oligo(dT) primers using the PrimeScript 1st strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Takara Bio, USA) as recommended by the manufacturer. A 2L aliquot of each cDNA template was initially subjected to PCR using the generic primer pair CIFor/CIRev (Ha et al., 2008) that targets a fragment of the cylindrical inclusion (CI) body of potyviruses. The expected ~700 bp DNA band was amplified from both samples using the Taq DNA polymerase, dNTPack kit (Sigma-Aldrich). The amplicons were cloned and sequenced (three recombinant clones per sample) as described by Hernandez et al. (2021) and the BLASTX analyses of the consensus sequence (GenBank acc. no. OR137018) returned significant hits only to nerine yellow stripe virus (NeYSV; Potyvirus, Potyviridae) at 100% query coverage. To further confirm the results, another pair of universal primers (Jordan et al. 2011) was used to amplify the expected 1,600 bp product specific to the partial nuclear inclusion body (NIb), coat protein (CP) cistron, and 3' untranslated region of potyviruses from the same samples. The amplicons were similarly cloned, and a consensus sequence obtained (OR137019). In pairwise comparisons, the partial CI sequence of NeYSV from Texas (NeYSV-TX; OR137018) shared 83% nucleotide (nt)/93% amino acids (aa) identities with the corresponding sequences of NeYSV isolate 63 (MT396083) from the United Kingdom. The partial (649 nt) NIb sequences of NeYSV-TX (OR137019) and the complete CP (OR137019) of NeYSV-TX shared 77-94%/88-94% and 83-99%/89-98% nt/aa identities with the corresponding sequences of global NeYSV isolates that were retrieved from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer relationship between NeYSV-TX and the isolates Stenomesson (EU042758) and DC (MG012805) from the Netherlands and USA, respectively based on the partial NIb and CP cistrons (Fig. S2), suggesting that NeYSV-TX may have been introduced from foreign and/or domestic sources. NeYSV has been documented previously from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, and India; its first report from the United States was a decade ago from Amaryllis belladonna in California (Guaragna et al. 2013). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of NeYSV in Texas, thus expanding the geographical range of the virus in the USA. Anecdotal information from the sample submitter implicated infected crinum lily bulbs as the likely source of NeYSV introduction into the property, with subsequent vegetative propagation of plants resulting in 100% incidence of symptomatic lilies (n>100) over time. Thus, the results underscore the importance of ensuring that only virus-free vegetative plant materials are distributed and propagated by florists to curtail virus spread.

published proceedings

  • Plant Dis

author list (cited authors)

  • Alabi, O. J., Villegas, C., Oladokun, J. O., & Ong, K.

publication date

  • July 2023