Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.
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Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P < 005) in tenderness with increasing time-on-feed for all muscles except the M. psoas major (tenderloin); (b) with the exception of the M. longissimus muscle (strip loin), the tenderness of steaks from Angus steers did not change (P > 005) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P < 005) in tenderness with increasing time-on-feed. 'Acceptable' tenderness (WBS values of less than 45 kg) for most of the muscles was achieved at feeding periods from 112 to 224 days for Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman Angus.