Antiandrogen-Equipped Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Selectively Inhibit Androgen Receptor (AR) and AR-Splice Variant (AR-SV) in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC). Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: Epigenetic modification influences androgen receptor (AR) activation, often resulting in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Silencing histone-modifying enzymes (histone deacetylases-HDACs) either genetically or pharmacologically suppresses PCa proliferation in preclinical models of PCa; however, results from clinical studies were not encouraging. Similarly, PCa patients eventually become resistant to androgen ablation therapy (ADT). Our goal is to develop dual-acting small molecules comprising antiandrogen and HDAC-inhibiting moieties that may overcome the resistance of ADT and effectively suppress the growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: Several rationally designed antiandrogen-equipped HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) were synthesized, and their efficacy on CRPC growth was examined both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: While screening our newly developed small molecules, we observed that SBI-46 significantly inhibited the proliferation of AR+ CRPC cells but not AR- CRPC and normal immortalized prostate epithelial cells (RWPE1) or normal kidney cells (HEK-293 and VERO). Molecular analysis confirmed that SBI-46 downregulated the expressions of both AR+ and AR-splice variants (AR-SVs) in CRPC cells. Further studies revealed the downregulation of AR downstream (PSA) events in CRPC cells. The oral administration of SBI-46 abrogated the growth of C4-2B and 22Rv1 CRPC xenograft tumors that express AR or both AR and AR-SV in xenotransplanted nude mice models. Further, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that SBI-46 inhibits AR signaling in xenografted tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that SBI-46 is a potent agent that inhibits preclinical models of CRPC by downregulating the expressions of both AR and AR-SV. Furthermore, these results suggest that SBI-46 may be a potent compound for treating CRPC.

published proceedings

  • Cancers (Basel)

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Chandrasekaran, B., Tapadar, S., Wu, B., Saran, U., Tyagi, A., Johnston, A., ... Damodaran, C.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Chandrasekaran, Balaji||Tapadar, Subhasish||Wu, Bocheng||Saran, Uttara||Tyagi, Ashish||Johnston, Alexis||Gaul, David A||Oyelere, Adegboyega K||Damodaran, Chendil

publication date

  • March 2023