Physically mapped, cosmid-derived microsatellite markers as anchor loci on bovine chromosomes.
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To identify physical and genetic anchor loci on bovine chromosomes, 13 cosmids, obtained after the screening of partial bovine cosmid libraries with the (CA)n microsatellite motif, were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Eleven cosmid probes yielded a specific signal on one of the bovine chromosomes and identified the following loci: D5S2, D5S3, D6S3, D8S1, D11S5, D13S1, D16S5, D17S2, D19S2, D19S3, D21S8. Two cosmids produced centromeric signals on many chromosomes. The microsatellite-containing regions were subcloned and sequenced. The sequence information revealed that the two centromeric cosmids were derived from bovine satellites 1.723 and 1.709, respectively. A cosmid located in the subtelomeric region of Chromosome (Chr) 17 (D17S2) had features of a chromosome-specific satellite. Primers were designed for eight of the nonsatellite cosmids, and seven of these microsatellites were polymorphic with between three and eight alleles on a set of outbred reference families. The polymorphic and chromosomally mapped loci can now be used to physically anchor other bovine polymorphic markers by linkage analysis. The microsatellite primers were also applied to DNA samples of a previously characterized panel of somatic hybrid cell lines, allowing the assignment of seven microsatellite loci to defined syntenic groups. These assignments confirmed earlier mapping results, revealed a probable case of false synteny, and placed two formerly unassigned syntenic groups on specific chromosomes.