Modulation of mouse mammary tumor growth and linoleate enhanced metastasis by oleate.
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This study examines whether oleate may influence the linoleate enhanced metastasis of line 4526 murine mammary tumors. In addition, the in vitro proliferative response of line 4526 to oleate and other selected fatty acids was assessed. Initially, the tumor cells were grown in a defined medium supplemented with palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, linolenate or arachidonate. The unsaturated fatty acids stimulated and the saturated fatty acids inhibited proliferation compared to fatty acid-free medium. Next, we examined the effect of oleate on the linoleate enhanced metastasis of 4526 tumors by substituting oleate for saturated fat in isoenergetic diets containing high or low levels of linoleate. Oleate had no effect on metastasis in mice fed the high linoleate diets but it significantly increased metastasis in mice fed the low linoleate diets. Finally, the fatty acid compositions of tumors and mammary fat pads were compared to diet fatty acid compositions and metastatic frequency. Metastasis corresponded more closely to total unsaturated fatty acids than to total polyunsaturated fatty acids or to any individual fatty acid. These studies suggest that both mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids may stimulate mammary tumor metastasis. However, the influence of dietary oleate probably depends on the level of linoleate and total unsaturated fatty acids in the diet.