Dietary fat and fiber alter rat colonic protein kinase C isozyme expression.
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To better understand the biochemical mechanisms by which select fats and fibers modulate colonic cell proliferation, we determined the profile of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and cell proliferation in rat proximal and distal colonic mucosa following diet manipulation, because enhanced cell proliferation has been correlated with colon cancer incidence. Rats were assigned to one of four diets (each with 15 g fat + 6 g fiber/100 g diet) for 3 wk: fiber-free fish oil (FF), fiber-free corn oil (FC), cellulose + corn oil (CC), or pectin + corn oil (PC). Stead-state levels of colonic mucosal cytosolic and membrane PKC isozymes were determined. In vivo cell proliferation was determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA. In addition, viable exfoliated colonic epithelial cells were isolated from feces using Percoll-bovine serum albumin gradients. We found that 1) proximal and distal colonic mucosa possessed different steady-state levels and relative proportions of PKC isozymes; 2) PKC alpha and delta expression were significantly greater in distal membrane of the PC-fed group compared with the other dietary groups; 3) the number of exfoliated cells per 4-h fecal collection generally was proportional to the diet-induced changes in cell proliferation (PC > FC > CC > FF). These data demonstrate that dietary treatment altered colonic PKC isozyme expression, with animals fed the fiber-containing diets generally expressing higher steady-state levels of PKC alpha and delta.