Risk factors associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis seropositivity in Canadian dairy cows and herds.
Additional Document Info
Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in a large number of randomly selected Canadian dairy herds, controlling for important confounding variables and co-infections with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Neospora caninum (NC). Serum samples from 30 randomly selected cows, where available, in 315 herds from seven provinces were tested for antibodies against BLV, MAP and NC using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) test kits, while five unvaccinated cattle >6 months old from each herd were tested for antibodies to BVDV. We used a zero-inflated negative-binomial (ZINB) multivariable model to determine simultaneously the risk factors associated with the count of MAP-seropositive cows in a herd, and the odds of herds having no MAP-seropositive cows as compared to having one or more MAP seropositive cows in a herd. The following factors were significantly positively associated with the count of MAP-seropositive cows: "more than one cow in the maternity pen", "group-housing for pre-weaned calves in winter", "open heifers purchased during the last 12 months", "beef cattle direct (nose-to-nose) contact", "BVDV-seropositive herds (> or = 1 animal with > or = 1:64 titer)" and "BVD vaccination not done properly in calves" (i.e. after 6 months old, animals were not boostered 2-4 weeks after their first killed vaccine, or not given modified live vaccine), with count ratios of 1.7, 2.0, 2.3, 1.9, 1.4 and 1.8, respectively. The variable "BVDV vaccination (modified live) done properly in calves" (i.e. received another modified live vaccination after 6 months as well) was associated with 0.4 times fewer MAP-seropositive cows.