Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.
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The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer > or =1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research will contribute to understanding the economic impacts of these pathogens and justify their control.
author list (cited authors)
Tiwari, A., Vanleeuwen, J. A., Dohoo, I. R., Keefe, G. P., Haddad, J. P., Tremblay, R., Scott, H. M., & Whiting, T.
complete list of authors
Tiwari, A||Vanleeuwen, JA||Dohoo, IR||Keefe, GP||Haddad, JP||Tremblay, R||Scott, HM||Whiting, T