Biochemical Origin of Raman-Based Diagnostics of Huanglongbing in Grapefruit Trees.
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Biotic and abiotic stresses cause substantial changes in plant biochemistry. These changes are typically revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectroscopy-coupled HPLC (HPLC-MS). This information can be used to determine underlying molecular mechanisms of biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. A growing body of evidence suggests that changes in plant biochemistry can be probed by Raman spectroscopy, an emerging analytical technique that is based on inelastic light scattering. Non-invasive and non-destructive detection and identification of these changes allow for the use of Raman spectroscopy for confirmatory diagnostics of plant biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we couple HPLC and HPLC-MS findings on biochemical changes caused by Candidatus Liberibacter spp. (Ca. L. asiaticus) in citrus trees to the spectroscopic signatures of plant leaves derived by Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that Ca. L. asiaticus cause an increase in hydroxycinnamates, the precursors of lignins, and flavones, as well as a decrease in the concentration of lutein that are detected by Raman spectroscopy. These findings suggest that Ca. L. asiaticus induce a strong plant defense response that aims to exterminate bacteria present in the plant phloem. This work also suggests that Raman spectroscopy can be used to resolve stress-induced changes in plant biochemistry on the molecular level.
author list (cited authors)
Dou, T., Sanchez, L., Irigoyen, S., Goff, N., Niraula, P., Mandadi, K., & Kurouski, D.
complete list of authors
Dou, Tianyi||Sanchez, Lee||Irigoyen, Sonia||Goff, Nicolas||Niraula, Prakash||Mandadi, Kranthi||Kurouski, Dmitry