Exosomes, endogenous retroviruses and toll-like receptors: pregnancy recognition in ewes. Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • Conceptus-endometrial communication during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy ensures establishment of pregnancy. We hypothesized that this dialog involves exosomes, ovine endogenous jaagsiekte retroviruses (enJSRV) and toll-like receptors (TLR) which regulate the secretion of interferon tau (IFNT), the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants. First, exosomes isolated from uterine flushings from cyclic and pregnant ewes were analyzed for exosomal content and uterine expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSC70). Then, conceptus trophectoderm cells (oTr1) treated with different doses of exosomes were analyzed for the expression of genes involved in TLR-mediated cell signaling. The results revealed that exosomes contain mRNAs for enJSRV-ENV, HSC70, interleukins, and interferon (IFN)-regulatory factors. Exosomal content of enJSRV-ENV mRNA and protein decreased from days 10 and 12 to day 16 of gestation, and uterine expression of HSC70 increased in pregnant ewes compared with cyclic ewes. The oTr1 cells proliferated and secreted IFNT in a dose-dependent manner in response to exosomes from cyclic ewes. The expression of CD14, CD68, IRAK1, TRAF6, IRF6, and IRF7 mRNAs that are key to TLR-mediated expression of type 1 IFNs was significantly influenced by day of pregnancy. This study demonstrated that exosomes are liberated into the uterine lumen during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy; however, in pregnant ewes, exosomes stimulate trophectoderm cells to proliferate and secrete IFNT coordinately with regulation of TLR-mediated cell signaling. These results support our hypothesis that free and/or exosomal enJSRV act on the trophectoderm via TLR to induce the secretion of IFNT in a manner similar to that for innate immune responses of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells to viral pathogens.

published proceedings

  • Reproduction

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Ruiz-Gonzlez, I., Xu, J., Wang, X., Burghardt, R. C., Dunlap, K. A., & Bazer, F. W.

citation count

  • 66

complete list of authors

  • Ruiz-Gonz├ílez, Irene||Xu, Jing||Wang, Xiaoqiu||Burghardt, Robert C||Dunlap, Kathrin A||Bazer, Fuller W

publication date

  • March 2015